TCPDump

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tcpdump is a network monitoring application that can capture packet traffic on a broadcast network. The traffic of interest can be specified by command line arguments when tcpdump is run and the utility will only dump the required traffic. It supports a variety of output options but by default it outputs packet headers in a user readable format to the standard output. The size of data from a packet to be dumped is 68 octets by default. This can be altered by specifying the option -s snaplen, where snaplen is the length of a packet to be dumped. It records network traffic by the use of a host computer's packet filter. A packet filter is an operating system service for selectively recording network packets. This is referred to as packet capture. tcpdump is implemented using the Packet Capture library (libpcap), which recognizes a variety of packet capture systems on different operation system platforms. An example of a packet capture system is the Berkeley Packet Filter (BPF). The link-level device driver calls BPF when a packet arrives at the network interface before it makes a decision whether the packet is addressed to the local host and should be passed up to the system protocol stack. The BPF feeds the packet to the tcpdump process's filter that is specified by the user and is responsible for deciding whether a packet is to be accepted. If the packet is to be accepted, BPF copies the requested amount of data to the buffer associated with the filter and timestamps it. Timestamps measured by tcpdump are closer to packets' wire times than those acquired in the user-space by a process such as ping, since they are captured by BPF just above the link-layer device driver which directly communicates with the network interface card. Furthermore, since ping timestamps an ICMP request packet earlier than BPF and timestamps the ICMP reply packet later than BPF, the round-trip time reported by ping is always larger than that reported by the tcpdump running on the same machine


Using TCPDump

The tcpdump program is very useful tool that can be used to capture and read TCP/IP traffic on the network. Specifically it captures and prints out the headers of packets on a network interface. By default it captures and prints all the traffic the local subnet in a standard format. Command line options are provided for modifying the default behavior, either by collecting specified records, printing in a more verbose mode (-v), printing in hexadecimal (-x) or writing records as "raw packets" to a file (-w) instead of printing as standard output.

Tag Use
-v Verbose Mode
-x Print in Hexadecimal
-w Write Records as "Raw Packets" to file instead of Standard Output

We can also design tcpdump filters and specify packets to be captured. Rather than gather all traffic passing on the local subnet, tcpdump can be instructed to capture packets with very specific characteristics. Examples such filters would be to capture only TCP packets, or packets to a given port, say telnet, port 23. We can also limit the scope of packets captured to a specific IP address or hostname. Combinations of protocol details can be used to selectively capture packets. Just about any field in an IP datagram, including the actual data payload, can be used to select the packets that are captured. tcpdump has a default standard output based on the protocol (TCP, UDP, ICMP) of the record that is displayed

Examples

The following is an example of the command: tcpdump udp

   Timestamp       source.port            dest.port    udp bytes
21:49:18.485000 ithaca.olympus.728 > valhalla.bcit.111: udp 56


    timestamp: hour:minutes:seconds.fractions of seconds
    source.port: source IP/hostname.source port
    dest.port: destination IP/host.destination port
    udp: may or may not expressly label the udp protocol
    bytes: number of bytes of udp data (payload)

The source information includes the source host name, ithaca.olympus, or IP number depending upon whether the IP can be resolved. To save dns query delays, tcpdump can be run with the -n paramter. The hostname is followed by a period and the source port, in this case 728. Immediately following the greater than sign is the destination host or IP, valhalla.bcit followed by a period, and then the destination port, in this case port 111 (this happens to be the portmapper or sunrpc port). Next we see the word "udp", specifying the protocol. Note that not all udp records will be specifically labeled as such. DNS, or port 53, is an exception. The final field indicates the number of bytes found in the packet payload.

The following is an example of the command: tcpdump tcp

timestamp source.port dest.port flags beginning:ending   bytes options seq#   seq#
21:49:18.485000 zeus.net.1173 > dns.net.21: S 62697789:62697789(0) win 512

    flags: tcp flags ( PSH, RST, SYN, FIN)
    beginning seq #: for the initial connection, this is the initial
    sequence number (ISN) from the source IP
    ending seq #: this is the beginning sequence number + data bytes
    bytes: data bytes (payload) in the tcp packet
    options: options that the source host advertises to the destination host

The tcp output is identical to the udp record as far as timestamp, source and destination host and port. What distinguishes the tcp format from the others are the tcp flags, sequence numbers, acknowledgements, acknowledgement numbers, and tcp options. In this trace the flag SYN or S is set following the destination port of 21 (ftp). The SYN flag indicates a request to begin a tcp session. Other possible flag values are P for PUSH (sends remaining data), R for RESET (abort a connection) and F for FIN (gracefully terminates a connection). A period in the flag field simply indicates that none of the PUSH, RESET ,SYN or FIN flags are set. Next is the starting sequence number. Sequence numbers are used by tcp to achieve reliable packet delivery. In this case, since this is an initial connection, it is known as the initial Sequence Number or ISN. The ending sequence number is the sum of the initial sequence number plus the number of tcp data bytes sent in this tcp segment. A SYN connection sends no data bytes, as represented by the zero in parentheses. Data will not be sent until the two hosts complete the three-way handshake.

Finally, there is a tcp options field. In this record, we see that zeus.net is advertising a sliding window size of 512 bytes. A sliding window is used by one host to inform a remote host that it has maximum receive buffer size of 512 bytes. If dns.net is a more powerful, larger host, it will have to slow itself down and regulate the data it transmits so as to not overrun the buffer size of zeus.net. The next few slides provide examples that illustrate the basic details displayed by tcpdump.

Writing TCPDump Filters

One of the most powerful features of tcpdump is its ability to use filters to narrow down the type of packet captures to be displayed. Often, we will want to examine certain fields in the IP datagram for signs of malicious activity directed at our network. If we want wanted to capture specific types of packets, all we have to do is write a filter that uniquely specifies that type of packet. Then we execute tcpdump with the filter option, and tcpdump will use the filter as part of the packet selection criteria. Filters need to specify an item of interest, such as a field in the IP datagram, for record selection. Such items might be part of the IP header (the IP header length, for example), the TCP header (TCP flags, for example), the UDP header (the destination port, for example), or the ICMP message (message type, for example). Also provided are some macros for commonly used fields, such as "port" to indicate a source or destination port or "host" to indicate an IP numberor name of a source or destination host.

Sometimes the fields we are interested in do not have macros, and so we must use the format of referencing a field by the protocol and displacement in terms of bytes into that protocol. tcpdump assigns a designated name for each type of header associated with a protocol. "ip" is used to denote a field in the IP header or data portion of the IP datagram, "tcp" for a field in the TCP header or data of the TCP segment, "udp" for a field in the UDP header or data of the UDP datagram, and "icmp" for a field in the ICMP header or data of the ICMP message. This gives us a reference a field in a given protocol by its displacement in bytes from the beginning of the protocol header. For instance, ip[0] indicates the first byte of the IP datagram, which happens to be part of the IP header (remember to count starting at 0). tcp[13] is byte 14 into the TCP segment, which is also part of the TCP header, and icmp[0] is the first byte of the ICMP message, which is the ICMP message type.

The format for filters is the following:

<header> [<offset>:<length>] <relation> <value>

The relational operators that tcpdump recognizes are: =, <, >, <=, >=,!=, as well as the logical operators and (&), or (|), not (!).

A simple example to capture all telnet traffic would be:

tcpdump –i eth0 –x ‘tcp[2:2] = 23’

This tells tcpdump to look at the tcp header. We skip bytes zero, and one (the source port), and look at bytes two and three (the destination port). If this two-byte field contains the value 23, this is a telnet packet. To simplify things, tcpdump also includes some built in macro’s that make writing filters even simpler. The following filter accomplishes the same thing as the filter above:

tcpdump –i eth0 –x ‘tcp and dst port 23’

The following would filter to capture NFS traffic:

tcpdump –i eth0 –x ‘ip and udp port 2049’

If you just want to capture tcp packets you could use 1 of these 2 filters:

tcpdump –i eth0 –x ‘tcp’ #uses macros

tcpdump –i eth0 –x ‘ip[9:1] = 6’ #parces ip header

If you wanted to be more specific and capture SYN packets we could use the filter:

tcpdump –i eth0 –x ‘tcp[13] & 2 != 0’

This filter tells tcpdump to look at byte 13 of the tcp header (remember to start counting at zero). Once you find byte 13, logically AND the value with 2 (0010), and compare the result of the AND to the value 1.

Note there is also a bug in this filter. SYN/ACK packets will also be captured ?

Here is another example that is a complete filter to capture a signature of an IP datagram that has IP options set:

tcpdump -i eth0 -x 'ip[0] & 0x0f > 5'

It is possible to string several filters together using parenthesis and logical operators to create very powerful and effective filters. Note that this is not recommended

# Capture any packets that are
ip and                                                  #IP packets, AND
(
(ip[12:4] = ip[16:4])                                   #the source IP == the destination IP
or                                                      #OR
    ((not src net 192.168) and                          #if the source net is not 192.168 AND
    (
        (ip[19] = 0xff) or                              #the destination is all !'s broadcast OR
        (ip[19] = 0x00) or                              #the destination is all 0's broadcast OR
        ((ip[6:1] & 0x20 != 0 ) and                     #if MF is set, AND
        (ip[6:2] & 0x1fff = 0)) or                      #this is the first fragment OR
            (net 0 or net 127 or net 1) or              #if the destination net is 0, 127 or 1
                                                        #OR
        (ip[12] > 239) or                               #if the destination IP is class D or E OR
        ( ((ip[0:1] & 0xf) > 5) )                       #if the packet contains IP options
    ))                                                  #(more than five 32 bit words in the IP header means options is in use)
)

As you can see typing in such filters is complex and tedious and also not recommended. We can though put these filters into a filter file and call it for example 'ipfilter' and call tcpdump with the -F filter option:

tcpdump –i eth0 –x –F ipfilter

It is important to note that the filter files must not contain comments. The comments above are there just for the purposes of explanation and must be removed before invoking tcpdump with the file.

Some of the telltale indications in the IP header that you might be a target of reconnaissance include traffic sent to your broadcast address, fragmentation, and the presence of IP options. You should never see legitimate traffic directed to your broadcast address from outside your network, and that should be blocked at the external firewall.

Fragmentation is a natural enough byproduct of a datagram destined to your network via a network that permits a larger MTU than one of the routes it took to get to your network. But, fragmentation can also be used for denial-of-service attacks or to try to bypass notice by an IDS or routers that cannot keep track of state

Detecting Traffic to the Broadcast Addresses

A broadcast address is defined as one with a final octet of 255 or 0. This includes most broadcast addresses subdivided on classic byte boundaries. The destination address is found in bytes 16 through 19 (32 bits) of the IP header. Of concern to us is the final octet, or byte 19. We can describe the broadcast addresses as follows:

ip[19] = 0xff
ip[19] = 0x00

Or as a combined filter as follows:

ip[19] = 0xff or ip[19] = 0x00

As a matter of course hexadecimal notation is used. But, the above can also be expressed in decimal as follows:

ip[19] = 255 or ip[19] = 0

Depending on where the host running the tcpdump filter is located, you might pick up broadcast traffic inside your network. Assume that the inside network is 192.168.x.x. To further refine this filter to examine only traffic directed toward your network from a foreign source, the filter as follows:

not src net 192.168 and (ip[19] = 0xff or ip[19] = 0x00)

The macro operator not, is used to negate; and src, to indicate the traffic originated from this source; and net, to indicate a subnet. The above filter will capture any traffic that originates from a source network other than your own that is destined for the broadcast addresses.

Detecting Fragmentation

All fragments in a fragmented packet sequence except the last one have the more fragments (MF) bit set. If we locate this field and test the MF bit to see if it is set, we can find most of the fragmented traffic directed to our network. Specifically, if you count into the IP header, you will find it in the sixth byte. It is the third bit from the left of the high order-bit. The mask needs to be 0010 0000, which is a hexadecimal 0x20. Thus our filter becomes ip[6] & 0x20 != 0.

Another filter to detect the MF bit would match the fragmented datagrams but will miss the the last fragment (which has the 2nd bit set to 0):

tcpdump -i eth1 'ip[6] = 32'

The last fragment has the first 3 bits set to 0, but contains values in the fragment offset field.

The following filter will match all the fragments, including the last fragment:

tcpdump -i eth1 '((ip[6:2] > 0) and (not ip[6] = 64))'
  • ip[6:2] > 0 - returns anything with a value of at least 1
  • not ip[6] = 64 - omit datagrams with the DF bit set

Note that because fragmentation is not always malicious, you are likely to generate false positives with this filter.

UDP Filters

Many backdoors and Trojans use UDP ports. UDP is a very simple header to deal with as far as filter design is concerned. To detect UDP traffic, we select UDP ports to be monitored for suspicious activity.For example, to scan for traffic to port 31337, the filter is as follows:

udp and dst port 31337

The main effort is not so much designing the filter but in deciding which ports you want include, adding them to the filter, and keeping the filter current with the real world of ever-expanding UDP exploits. Consider a popular UDP application, traceroute. This tool maps a path to a destination host by attempting to send UDP datagrams to high-numbered ports of the destination host.If a host on your network is that destination host, you want to be alerted of the attempted or successful traceroute. Start by looking at UDP activity to ports in the 3000-33999 range for most of the traceroute activity.

Note that the Windows version of traceroute use ICMP echo requests and replies, so this signature does not detect that activity.


Also note that some versions of traceroute enable the user to provide command-line options, one of which is a destination port. Therefore, this filter might not capture all traceroute activity, but it will find most of the conventional activity. The UDP destination port number is found in bytes 2 and 3 of the UDP header.


Question: "why don't we use the port macro rather than byte displacements?" For instance, why can't we use this filter:

dst port >= 33000 and dst port < 34000

The problem is that when tcpdump uses a range such as this and not one exact value, you have to express that field in terms of the primitive protocol and displacement and forgo the use of macros. The correct syntax to discover traceroute then becomes this:

udp[2:2] >= 33000 and udp[2:2] < 34000

The length option [2:2] will span bytes. We need to examine 2 consecutive bytes starting at byte 2.


We can further limit the amount of traffic that this filter extracts by examining the TTL value along with the destination port. traceroute operates by manipulating the TTL value found in the IP header. It records the routers that it traverses and does so using an incrementing TTL value. Frequently you will see a TTL of 1 on the sensor host running tcpdump before it crosses a router that will expire it. This is a classic traceroute signature. Therefore, we can further refine the traceroute filter to include the TTL value to eliminate some of the noise associated with discovering traceroutes. The TTL field is found in the IP header; it has no macro to reference it, but it is located in the eighth byte. The new filter is as follows:

udp[2:2] >= 33000 and udp[2:2] < 34000 and ip[8] = 1

TCP Filters

Filters for TCP traffic are mostly concerned with initial SYN connections and other types of anomalous flag combinations that might indicate some kind of reconnaissance or mapping efforts. We want to look for initial SYN connections because they inform us of attempted connections to a TCP port. This doesn't necessarily mean that they were successful. If the sensor is located outside a packet-filtering device that blocks access to the TCP destination port, it will never reach the host. We can glean a lot of intelligence by detecting this activity, the least of which is discovering rogue TCP ports that hosts on your network might be offering.

Filters for Examining TCP Flags

The TCP flag bits are located 13 bytes into the TCP header. Because we are looking for individual bits in the bytes, some bit-masking must be performed to select the flag or flags to be examined. We start by writing a filter to extract records with the SYN flag alone set:

tcp[13] & 0xff = 2

The mask consists of all 1's. Why not use a mask of 0's in all fields except the SYN flag, i.e., (tcp[13] & 0x02 = 2)?

By masking a bit with a 0, the resulting (byte) value is necessarily 0. The value bit could be 1, however, and the 0 mask would discard it. Suppose that you want to look at TCP segments with the SYN flag alone set. Now suppose that you have a TCP flag byte with both the SYN and ACK flags set. The binary value that you would see for the TCP flag byte would be 0001 0010. If that were masked with 0000 0010, you would end up with a result of 0000 0010,which is 2. This is a misleading result because the intent here is to capture those packets with only the SYN bit set. Therefore, masking with 0's in fields other than the SYN flag selects TCP segments with other flags set along with the SYN flag. To prevent this from occurring, you use the original filter and look for an exact value. This filter does not select records with other flags set along with the SYN flag. The following are some other TCP flag combinations that might be very useful to be aware of:

tcp[13] = 0

This indicates null scans with no flags set. This condition should never occur.

tcp[13] = 3

This indicates activity where both the SYN and FIN flags are set simultaneously. This is definitely an anomalous condition. Alter the filter to tcp[13] & 0x03 = 3, to detect any activity with both the SYN and FIN flags set, as well as any other flags set. In this case, you don't necessarily want to limit this to SYN and FIN alone.

tcp[13] = 0x10 and tcp[8:4] = 0

Indicates activity with the ACK flag set, but with an acknowledgement value of 0. Any TCP segment with the ACK flag on should have a minimum acknowledgement value of 1 that occurs during the three-way handshake. At least 1 sequence number has to be consumed to elicit a valid acknowledgement; otherwise no acknowledgement would be returned.

This filter captures nmap operating system fingerprinting scans that sends TCP traffic to various destination ports with the ACK flag alone set, but a 0 value in the acknowledgement field.

tcp[13] >= 64

The two high-order bits in the TCP 8-bit flag byte are labeled reserved bits. These 2 bits should be 0's; if they are not, something is amiss. The first reserved bit is found in the 2, (64) position, and the second is found in the 27 (128) position. If either or both bits are set, the value for the TCP flag byte is greater than or equal to 64. nmap sometimes sets one or both of these bits to perform operating system fingerprinting. Most hosts reset these values to 0's, but some leave the set value. This is used by nmap to help classify the operating system behavior.

Capturing HTTP Traffic

Let us say we want to design a filter that will capture any packets containing HTTP GET requests. The HTTP request will contains a starting string similar to (which is 16 bytes counting the carriage return but not the backslashes)

GET / HTTP/1.1\r\n

Assuming no IP options are set, the GET command will use the bytes 20, 21 and 22. Options usually will take up to 12 bytes (12th byte indicates the header length, which should indicate 32 bytes). Therefore, in our filter we match bytes 32, 33 and 34 (remember to count from 0). The string "GET " in hex is: 47455420. Thus our filter becomes:

tcpdump -i eth1 'tcp[32:4] = 0x47455420'

Configure TCPDump As A Daemon

TCPDump has a number of tools that make setting it up as a monitoring tool quite easy. The only trouble begins when u want to be able to have TCPDump run in the background and also persist upon restart of the machine. the implementation below has been implemented on Raspbian and likely will work on Debian. It uses a mix of cron and init.d to operate.

This implementation assumes everything working as root which is not the greatest idea, but further experimentation can narrow this setup down

Note this configuration requires tcpdump, init.d, and zip all to be installed in order for all scripts to work

Setup Logging Directories

These will be the places TCPDump will dump all of its findings and will apply archiving. Make the following directories and file persmissions:

sudo mkdir /var/log/tcpdump
sudo mkdir /var/log/tcpdump/tcpdump_archive
sudo chmod 777 -R /var/log/tcpdump
sudo chmod 777 -R /var/log/tcpdump_archive  

Create CRON Manager Scripts

In the /home directory create the files tcpdump-startup.sh and tcpdump-cleanup.sh. Put the following into each file

tcpdump-startup.sh

#!/bin/bash

service tcpdump-monitor stop
service tcpdump-monitor start
exit 

tcpdump-cleanup.sh

#!/bin/bash

date=`date +%Y%m%d-%H:%M:%S`

#First we need to stop tcpdump from executing
service tcpdump-monitor stop
sleep 10m #tcpdump might have alot to do. so lets wait a bit before continueing

#Then go find all currently uncompressed files
#Compress them
#Store them somewhere else
zip /var/log/tcpdump/tcpdump_archive/tcpdump-archive-$date.zip /var/log/tcpdump/*.tcpdmp /var/log/tcpdump/*.tcpdmp. -m

#Then go start TCPDump back up again
#/home/tcpdump-startup.sh
service tcpdump-monitor start
exit

Create Init.d Service Script

The following is a Debian init.d service script. This is used to manage the number of instances that are running so that multiple are not created.

Execute the following commands

sudo touch /etc/init.d/tcpdump-monitor
sudo chmod 755 /etc/init.d/tcpdump-monitor 

Open the just created tcpdump-monitor file in a text editor and fill in the following information

#!/bin/bash

### BEGIN INIT INFO
# Provides:          tcpdump-monitor
# Required-Start:    $all
# Required-Stop: 
# Default-Start:     2 3 4 5
# Default-Stop:      
# Short-Description: initiates tcpdump to be monitoring all traffic
# Description:       This is a test daemon
#                    This provides example about how to
#                    write a Init script.
### END INIT INFO

PATH=/sbin:/usr/sbin:/bin:/usr/bin



NAME=tcpdump-monitor
USER=root

date=`date +%Y%m%d-%H:%M:%S`

# 14400 seconds = 4 hours
# 3600 seconds = 1 hour

# Z - set tcpdump execution permissiong to root
# C - set max file size, when tcpdump wants to print to file, if the current file is bigger, it will append numbers to the filename
# w - packets are written out raw to the specified file instead of formatted. these files can be parsed again with tcpdump -r <file-created-with-w-flag>
# i - set interface to listen on
# G - set max seconds before trigger log rotation
# n - don't resolve DNS names, this will reduce the amount of DNS traffic needed
# S - print absolute rather then relative sequence numbers (better for debugging and comparing with wireshark
# s - set snaplen. setting to 0 sets to default packet length of 65535. Useful for compatability


case "$1" in
  start|"")
        /usr/local/sbin/tcpdump -Z root -C 100 -w "/var/log/tcpdump/%Y%m%d-%H:%M:%S.tcpdmp." -i eth0  -G 3600 -n -S -s 0 2>/dev/null &
        exit 0
        ;;
  restart|reload|force-reload)
        echo "Error: argument '$1' not supported" >&2
        exit 4
        ;;
  stop|status)
        tprocess=`ps aux | grep "/usr/local/sbin/tcpdump -Z root -C 100 -w /var/log/tcpdump/%Y%m%d-%H:%M:%S.tcpdmp. -i eth0 -G 3600 -n -S -s 0" | awk 'NR==1{print $2}'`
        kill $tprocess
        exit 0
        ;;
  *)
        echo "Usage: tcpdump.sh [start|stop]" >&2
        exit 3
        ;;
esac

The above script will run tcpdump and use a number of built in options to the tool itself. Every hour tcpdump will change the file it writes to, and if a large enough amount of data occurs, will split out the data it finds into incremented files. All of these files will be outputed with a the same timestamp and an appended number to signify order of each.

Register Init.d Script

Registering is the easy part. This will make the tcpdump-monitor script available through the service command. Execute the following command

sudo update-rc.d tcpdump-monitor defaults 

After executing, the script will be registered as a service. You can test this by running sudo service tcpdump-monitor start/stop/status. If there are issues where the command is not found, execute ldconfig or restart the system. On proper registering tcpdump-monitor should be available from the service command.

Other Init.d Tools

The Following Is Only For Context Information. It IS NOT part of the setup
Init.d also comes with functionality to boot it's services at start, and in most cases, it will show tcpdump-monitor at this point as started. By executing the following command you will also register the script to be booted at startup

sudo update-rc.d tcpdump-monitor enable

As of this writing, this does not work with the current script configuration. Upon booting the service will say tcpdump-monitor has started but using ps it does not show it operating. You can verify if the startup worked by checking processes with the following command

ps aux | grep "tcpdump" 

For completeness, To disable init.d from attempting to startup the tcpdump-monitor service, execute the following command

sudo update-rc.d tcpdump-monitor disable

You can also unregister the service with the following command

sudo update-rc.d -f tcpdump-monitor remove

Configure CRON

At this point our service can be started and stopped and kept track of by init.d. We now need to configure persistence functionality so that the process is started on bootup, checked that it is still running, and also triggers archiving of rotated logs

Open /etc/crontab in a test editor and enter the following to the bottom of the file

0 */4 * * * root /home/tcpdump-cleanup.sh

@reboot root /home/tcpdump-startup.sh

The above will trigger tcpdump-cleanup.sh every 4 hours and thus will process all created logs so far and archive them into the /var/log/tcpdump/tcpdump_archive folder. Additionally at startup (@reboot) the tcpdump-startup.sh script will be called which will startup our service upon system bootup

Enable Promisc Mode For TCPDump

TCPDump reads its data straight from the eth0 network card. It will only read in data destined for the host itself. In order to read all traffic that may come its way, promiscuous mode needs to be enabled. You can enable promiscuous mode by executing the following command

ifconfig eth0 promisc 

To disable it later execute

ifconfig eth0 -promisc 

Note that this change is not persistant. In order to keep the change on reboot, create another shell script stored in /home with chmod 777 permissions, and add it to cron for @reboot.

Notes

Sources